Several environmentally conscious options are and will be available to the transport sector, which currently produces a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce emission, improving the energy consumption of vehicles and the exclusive use of green energy sources as well as enhancing the rail system are viable solutions.
While demand in transport increases, we need to consider alternatives to diesel — some of which require technological progress to obtain autonomy beyond 500 kilometers (310 miles). Electricity could power light vehicles over short distances, but heavy trucks can run on biogas. Agrofuels (liquid or gaseous) will prove increasingly important as green initiatives come into fruition.
Fortunately, focusing on rail transport for long distances does not necessitate technological progress. However, it requires other significant changes: a decrease in weight transported, a reduction in average distances and an increase in time available to transport.
Decarbonizing the transport sector is certainly not an easy task (regardless of what form it takes) but it is the responsible reaction to growing emissions.